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Determination of phenolic compounds with recent development in Laccase Biosensor



Laccase belongs to the multi copper oxidase family that catalysis the one electron oxidation of phenolic compounds. For catalysis of phenolic compounds it requires oxygen as co-substrate and it yields water as by-product. Laccase is distributed in fungi, bacteria and higher plants and also reported in lichens and sponges. Laccase was first discovered in Japanese lacquer toxicodendron vernicifera (Rhus vernicifera) in 1883. Laacase contains three type of copper atoms in which T1and T 2 is paramagnetic and T 3 is diamagnetic. T1is the first active site for catalysis (substrate oxidation site) and T2and T3 forms a trinuclear cluster where molecular oxygen is reduced to water. Many methods are used for immobilization of laccase such as direct adsorption, physical entrapment, conjugation and covalent attachment. Laccase enzyme is used for construction of biosensors for determination of various compounds such as tartrazine, phenols in wastewater, catechol, detection of Bisphenol A, polyphenol index in wine, xenobiotics.

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